News round up
We are delighted to announce the appointment of a new team member to our growing Employment team. Partner, Chris Booth has joined the team this month.
We have several exciting events in the pipeline and seminars already scheduled for later in the year. Please click here to view our seminar programme and keep an eye on your inbox for invitations to these events in due course.
Our next event is on Thursday 14 June and it's a joint seminar with Connect Yorkshire on Protecting your business. Chris Booth and Sue Streatfield from our IP team will speak at this event. If you would like to register, click here.
In addition, you should have received an invitation to our next Mock Employment Tribunal on Thursday 28 June. As many of you will know since fees to bring a claim to the Employment Tribunal were removed in July 2017, claims are now on the increase. Compared with the same time last year, claims have increased by around 90%.
This means all businesses are more likely than ever to face an Employment Tribunal at some stage. It is important to understand what processes you would have to follow, how you would prepare and what requirements would be placed on you.
Our Mock Employment Tribunal was so popular last year that unfortunately, not all of those who wished to attend were able to do so. Therefore, to give everyone the opportunity to benefit from this valuable learning experience, we have decided to examine the same claim again. You can find more information on our website.
In the meantime, here is our round up of key cases and legal changes over the last few weeks.
Following revelations in the film industry, and then spreading wider to a range of employment sectors, the topic of sexual harassment has never been as prominent. The Equality and Human Rights Commission has recently published a new report called ‘Turning the tables: ending sexual harassment at work’. A key theme of this report is a criticism of employers for not having effective policies relating to harassment, not providing sufficient support for victims and not having processes to ensure that complainants are not victimised.
The report makes a number of recommendations for the government to consider, and we will let you know if any changes are made to the law. However, it is also worth noting these themes of the report.
The media profile given to harassment means that people are more ready to speak out if they are suffering, so you do need to make sure that you have a process in place to deal with any potential complaints.
- If you do not already have a policy explaining how you will address a complaint of harassment, then create one. Contact us if it would help to discuss the content.
- If you do already have a policy, it is time to review it. Is it clear about the support that is offered to the complainant? Is it clear about what will be kept confidential? Does it explain that you will take allegations of harassment seriously and, if proven, will take disciplinary action against the perpetrator?
Date of termination
If you terminate an individual’s employment when does that termination take effect? In Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Foundation Trust v Haywood , the Supreme Court has ruled that termination takes effect when the employee reads the letter of termination, not on the date that the letter is sent.
Haywood was informed that she was at risk of redundancy. She went abroad on holiday on 19 April, returning on 27 April. On 20 April, her employer sent her a letter by recorded delivery and ordinary post, and an email to her husband’s email account, terminating her employment. She did not read either until she returned from holiday on 27 April.
The Supreme Court ruled that the notice was given on 27 April. There was nothing in her contract of employment explaining how notice would be given, and hence she received notice when she became aware of it.
- You could choose to set out in the contract of employment how termination will be given. If you do not do that, it will take effect from the date that the letter of termination is received by the employee.
Employment Appeal Tribunal overturns ruling on Shared Parental Leave
An employee can choose to end their Statutory Maternity or Adoption Leave early and return to work. The remainder of the leave can be shared with their partner, in the form of Shared Parental Leave (SPL). The rate of pay during SPL is £145.18 per week, the same as the lower rate for both Statutory Maternity and Adoption Pay. An employer can choose to have an enhanced rate of pay. If there is an enhanced rate of pay offered to women taking maternity leave does it also have to be offered to those taking SPL?
In Capita Customer Management Ltd v Ali , the employee’s wife ended her maternity leave early and he started a period of SPL. In his organisation, women taking maternity leave were allowed 14 weeks at a rate higher than statutory maternity pay. However, whilst taking SPL he was told that he would only be paid the statutory rate. He argued that this was sex discrimination.
The Employment Tribunal agreed. They said that the purpose of maternity leave and SPL (after the 2 weeks of Compulsory Maternity Leave) was the same – to care for the child. Therefore, treating men and women differently was discriminatory. The Employment Appeal Tribunal has now overturned that decision.
The EAT has ruled that the purpose of maternity leave is to protect the well-being of a woman during pregnancy and after childbirth. The purpose of SPL is different, it is for caring for the child. Therefore, it is not discriminatory to pay a different rate for the two different forms of leave.
- Approach this ruling with some care. Although, this clearly tells us that there is no need to pay the same enhanced rate for maternity leave and SPL, it does not mean that some other policy that is different for men and women would not be discriminatory.
- If you do have any policies that could be viewed as preferential for one gender talk to us for specific advice.
If an employee makes a protected disclosure, they must not suffer any detriment for doing so. A protected disclosure is revealing information to an appropriate regulatory body (preferably after having raised it in the organisation), which it is in the public interest to disclose. For example, this could be raising a health and safety concern with the Health and Safety Executive. If the employee is wrong about what they reveal, but genuinely believed that they were right, they are still protected.
In Lane v Weymouth College  the employee concerned was a School Finance Officer. He made a protected disclosure relating to two issues. Firstly, he said that the school had indicated in a reference that it would re-employ a teacher who had been dismissed for having an inappropriate relationship with a pupil.
Secondly, he said that the school Principal had a lax attitude to the consumption of alcohol in school hours. These matters were, in fact, not true. After raising these issues, he was ostracised at work, relationships broke down and he was dismissed.
This was an unfair dismissal because the reason for it was that he had made a protected disclosure.
- If an employee makes a disclosure to you, deal with it promptly. If the employee is wrong in what they have alleged, explain this, and the reasons why.
- If an employee makes a disclosure to a regulatory body, address it promptly, and make sure that other employees do not treat the employee any differently as a result.
Be careful of banter
It is important to have fun at work, but make sure that your supervisors are alert for any fun or ‘banter’ that crosses the line into being offensive.
In Edwards v Hertfordshire County Council  the employee was of Caribbean ethnic origin. He raised a large number of grievances about race discrimination. Most of these were rejected, but he was successful in arguing that he had suffered discrimination because a number of colleagues imitated his accent at work. The employer argued that this was just ‘banter’, but the Employment Tribunal found that it had crossed the line into discrimination and awarded just over £11,500 in compensation.
- Make sure that your supervisors are aware of the difference between banter which is fun and harmless and banter which could be discrimination. You could include this as a topic in your induction for supervisors.
- If an employee makes a complaint of discriminatory treatment, investigate it promptly. Even if you conclude that it is not discrimination, you may still want to advise the employees to stop that particular behaviour. It is not necessary at work, and if it is upsetting colleagues, it is best if it is stopped.
Remain neutral when carrying out an investigation
We know that it can sometimes be difficult to remain impartial when investigating some employees but it is important to be as neutral as possible.
In Ferguson v National Oceanography Centre , the employee had suffered a variety of problems, and was suffering from depression. Whilst he was absent during one period of depression, a notebook was found in which he had drawn sexually violent pictures. An investigation took place and it was decided to dismiss him for gross misconduct.
The dismissal was found to be unfair. The Employment Tribunal found that the employer had a pre-conceived view of what had happened, and interpreted the facts in a negative way. The employee was disabled, and no consideration was given as to whether the disability had contributed to what he had done.
- If there is an allegation of gross misconduct ask someone who has not been involved to carry out the investigation. Give them the facts but avoid giving any details which might unfairly influence the conclusions that they reach.
- If a decision is made to dismiss an employee, make sure that the appeal (if there is one) is heard by another manager who has not been involved in the situation, and was not involved in the decision to dismiss. The appeal should either consider the reasonableness of the decision or rehear the facts again from the start but should never be seen as ‘rubber stamping’ a dismissal decision that has been made.
A Final Word
This week is mental health awareness week and many of you attended our recent seminar on mental health in the work place. It is clear that this is a hot topic at the moment and a number of the attendees at our seminar confirmed that supporting employee wellbeing is something that their organisations are trying to focus on.
At our seminar, Rosana Rategh from Leeds Mind expained that 1 in 4 people will experience mental ill health in any given year and 1 in 6 workers are affected by mental health problems in any given year.
Mental ill health clearly affects or will affect many of us. We have prepared various blogs and articles on this topic during the mental health awareness week, so please have a look at our blogs and let us know if you want to discuss anything on managing employees' mental health.